Mindanao is the second largest and southernmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country (the other two being Luzon and the Visayas), which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. Davao City is the largest city in Mindanao and at 104,630 square kilometers, and is the eighth most populous island in the world. The island of Mindanao is larger than 125 countries worldwide. Population 2010 Census was 25,375,527 25, and Population density (/km²) was 198.10,
Of all the islands of the Philippines, Mindanao shows the greatest variety of physiographic development. High, rugged, faulted mountains; almost isolated volcanic peaks; high rolling plateaus. The mountains of Mindanao can be conveniently grouped into ten ranges, including both complex structural mountains and volcanoes.
Occupies the major portion of one such plateau in Lanao del Sur. This largest lake on Mindanao and second in the country is roughly triangular in shape with an 18-mile (29 km)-long base. Having a surface at 780 meters above sea level, and being rimmed on the east, south and west by series of peaks reaching 2,300 meters, the lake provides a scenic grandeur and pleasant temperature seldom equaled in the country,
Limunsudan Falls, with an approximate height of 800 ft (240 m), is the highest waterfalls in the Philippines; it is located at Iligan City.
Davao is also the largest city in the Philippines in terms of land area. It has an estimated population of 1,530,365. There are several cultural heritage sites in the city, such as museums like Davao Museum, Mindanao Folk Arts Museum, Davaoeño Historical Society Museum (at Magallanes and Claveria Streets), Philippine-Japan Museum (Matsuo Compound, Calinan), and Japanese historical sites like Japanese Tunnel (used by Japanese forces during World War II), Japanese Cemetery (burial site used in the 1900s), Furukawa Fiber Plant and many others.